We SAFETECHNO SERVICES deal in LPG Storage Plant Installation, Testing, Commissioning And Consultancy Services, Underground And Above Ground LPG Mounded Storage Plants Turnkey Project Manufacturer, Supplier, Exporter and Designer. We are specialized in our vast range of activities like Consultants, Project Management including Legal Documentation And Licensing Work, CCoE (PESO) Preliminary Approval, Plant Estimation, Project Planning, Supervision, Tender Document Preparation etc. from India.

Established in 2010 and we are one of the leading company specialized LPG Storage Plant Installation. We have an expert team for Design, Engineering consultancy, Installation, Testing & Commissioning of LPG Storage Plants, LPG Storage Terminals, LPG Bottling Plants / LPG Cylinder Filling Plants, LPG LOT / VOT Manifold Installation, Propane Storage Plants, CNG Storage Plants and Petroleum Storage Plants for commercial and industrial projects. We have recently got Recognition as a Competent Person under Petroleum Rule 2002 for Rule 126, 130 and Part B of Form VII by Petroleum and Explosive Safety Organisation (PESO) Nagpur (India).

• Rule 126: Certificate of Tank Testing for Petroleum Storage Tanks
• Rule 130: Issuance of Certificate of Safety for Storage of Petroleum

Safetechno Services provides a range of services, one of is LPG Storage Plant Design Engineering from front end engineering studies like FEED (Front End Engineering Design), Tender Documentation, Project Planning, Costing and Estimation, through to complete plant-project installation.

We have vast experience in LPG, Propane and CNG Turnkey Projects, which empower us to execute the project in given stipulated time.
We design and construct facility as per client requirement and in full accordance with various International Standards like National Fire Protection Act (NFPA), American Petroleum Institute (API) and in full compliance with State and Local Governing Authorities’.

The LPG / Propane Storage Plant Projects, we carried out from single to multi-vessels storage facilities. The components used in the project are highly reputed worldwide which helps to deliver safe, reliable operations years to come.
Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) Management is the key part in project execution, implementation, installation, testing and commissioning. It is provided as a part of design and build or as a stand-alone service. Safetechno Services has extensive experience providing Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) Management services in the LPG, CNG and Petroleum Storage Plant Projects.

• LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)
LPG is clean and efficient energy source. It is the by-product of Petroleum production and Natural Gas. LPG is the combination of two liquid hydrocarbon gases Propane & Butane and remains so under pressure of their own fumes mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons

LPG Application is as follows:
✓ Food industry for baking, heating and in the manufacture of food products, juice pasteurisation,
✓ Households (heating, light, cooking),
✓ Metal, construction, glass, ceramic, aerosol and textile industries,
✓ Transport, as engine fuel,
✓ Agriculture, Poultry rearing, drying grasses, green house heating,
✓ Paper and printing industries, for radiation heaters to remove humidity,
✓ Industrial furnaces

• Where does LPG come from?
✓ LPG comes from drilling Oil and Gas wells.
✓ It is a fossil fuel that does not occur in isolation.
✓ LPG is found naturally in combination with other hydrocarbons, typically crude oil and natural gas.
✓ LPG is produced during Natural Gas processing and Oil refining.
✓ It is isolated, liquefied through pressurisation and stored in pressure vessels.
✓ The typical LPG Gases - Propane and Butane - are regarded as Natural Gas Liquids - NGL. However, not all NGL are LPG.
✓ LPG is made during Natural Gas processing and Oil refining.
✓ LPG is separated from unprocessed Natural Gas using refrigeration.
✓ LPG is extracted from heated Crude Oil using a distillation tower.
✓ This LPG can be used as is or separated into its three primary parts: Propane, Butane and Iso-butane.
✓ It is stored pressurised, as a liquid, in cylinders or tanks.

• Butane Vs Propane Properties
LPG physical properties include specific gravity (density), boiling point, pressure, vapour expansion, energy content, combustion facts, flame temperature, flash point & more.

Gas Properties
Butane
Propane
Chemical Formula
C4H10
C3H8
Energy Content: MJ/m3
111.4
95.8
Energy Content: MJ/kg
47.39
49.58
Energy Content: MJ/L
27.5
25.3
Boiling Temp: Cº
-0.4
-42
Pressure @ 21ºC: kPa
215.1
858.7
Flame Temp: Cº
1970
1967
Expansion: m3/L
0.235
0.27
Gas Volume: m3/kg
0.405
0.54
Relative Density: H2O
0.58
0.51
Relative Density: air
2
1.53
L per kg
1.724
1.96
kg per L
0.58
0.51
Specific Gravity @25ºC
2.07
1.55
Density @ 15ºC: kg/m3
2.544
1.899

• Should the LPG storage tank or Cylinder be filled completely?
NO - an LPG storage vessel can never be filled completely as LPG liquid has a high rate of expansion. In order to allow for expansion, LPG vessels are only filled to between 80% and 85% of their design capacity. This space allows for expansion and contraction of the stored liquid due to changes in ambient temperature.

• What will happen, if Liquid Gas spill?
The liquid will expand over 200 times when vaporized. A very small quantity of liquid LPG escaping to atmosphere will produce vast amounts of flammable gas. One volume of LPG liquid will produce 274 volumes of gas vapour.

• What is sweating / freezing of LPG Storage Tank?
The quantity of heat absorbed or released by a substance undergoing a change of state, such as ice changing to water or water to steam, at constant temperature and pressure. Also called heat of transformation or heat absorbed by a unit mass of a material at its boiling point in order to convert the material into a gas at the same temperature.
In a LPG storage tank when the vapour from vapour space is withdrawn or lost due to rupture downstream,the vapour pressure is lost and the liquid try to convert to vapour to make-up the lost pressure, the heat required for this vaporization process is taken from the liquid itself and this results in dropping the liquid temperature and thus cools the tank surface, this in turn causes the external water vapour to condense and deposit on the tank external surface which is referred to as sweating of tank, sometime due to very low temperature even ice formation can be seen on the tank external surface.
This sweating of tank should not be miss-understood as tank leakage. With time the tank and the inside liquid absorbs the atmospheric temperature and the sweating subsides.

• What Are the Types of LPG Storages / Installation?
1. LPG Mounded Storage Plant Installation
2. LPG Aboveground Storage Plant Installation
3. LPG Underground Storage Plant Installation
4. LPG Cylinder filling Plant Installation
5. LOT / VOT Cylinder Manifold Installation

• Difference between above ground and mounded LPG Installation.

Above Ground Storage
Mounded Storage
Safety Distances more
Safety Distances less
Installation cost more
Installation cost less
Implementation in lesser time
Implementation time is more
Maintenance of the tanks is much easier
Maintenance of the tanks is difficult
Space requirement is more
Space requirement is very less

Aboveground storage are frequently chosen for LPG bulk storage.

STANDARDS
Various sources of standards and codes exist for dealing with LPG facilities and proper fire protection. Some of these sources include:
✓ National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 54, National Fuel Gas Code.
✓ NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code.
✓ NFPA 59, Utility LP-Gas Plant Code.
✓ American Petroleum Institute (API) 2510, Design and Construction of LPG

Installations.
✓ API 2510A, Fire-Protection Considerations for the Design and Operation of Liquefied
Petroleum Gas (LPG) Storage Facilities.
✓ IP Code of Practice for LPG.

LPG PLANT INSTALATION:

A. LPG Mounded Storage Plant Installation

Nowadays the storage of dangerous gases becomes achallenging problem. Use of mounded bullets is one of thefeasible solutionto the problem. The design aspects ofmounded storage vessels are more complicated thanconventional above ground spheres or bullets.

Mounded bullets are horizontal pressure vessels which areintended for the pressurized storage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas(LPG) under ambient temperature.
In mounded storagefacility, a mound of earth or suitable inert material is provided
to cover the bullet, this is kept above ground.

Mounded bullet installation is more space efficient thanspheres. This is because of the smaller vessel-to-vesselspacing and due to the smaller safety distance requirementbetween the mounded storage vessels and items such ascontrol rooms, buildings, roads etc. Mounded bullets offer thepossibility of partial or total off-site construction. Moundedbullets are installed on sand bed foundations which allow theload to be transferred uniformly to the underlying sand.

Features:
1. LPG Mounded Storage Tanks / Bullets / Vessels are completely covered with Soil and Only Manhole / Dome and other nozzles protrude outside.
2. The Scenario of BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) is eliminated, since no fire possible below the tanks.
3. Difficult for external agencies to identify the mound as a storage facility.
4. Reduced fire case PSV loads as compared to above ground storage tanks and spheres.
5. Fire water requirement for mounded storages is less.
6. Vessels have slop of 1:200 minimum for drainage purpose.
7. Mound cover protects the vessels against, heat radiation from nearby fire, pressure wave originating from an explosion, impact by flying objects, sabotage etc.
8. Site area required less compared to above ground storage due to less stringent inter spacing requirement.

Foundation for Mounded Storage:
1. Mounded storage tanks/ vessels shall be placed on afirm foundation and installed so as to prevent movement or flotation.
2. Sub soil water, rain water or any other surface water percolation should not be allowed into the mound.
3. Longitudinal slope of 1:200 to be provided to facilitate drainage.
4. Adequate elevation of sand bed minimum 760mm required to facilitate drainage from LPG liquid outlet pipe by gravity.
5. Mounding material: Compacted earth, compacted sand of minimum thickness 700mm, Non-combustible material like vermiculate or perlite.
6. Impervious layers like geo-textile layers on top & bottom of vessels to minimize ingress of moisture into the mound and in turn to check corrosion of vessel.
7. Protective covering with prefabricated stone tiles or open concrete tiles to protect earth cover from rain or wind.

Inspection, Testing and Quality Assurance:
1. MP testing for all welding edges.
2. 100% radiography for all weld joints.
3. All C-welds in lower 120 Deg. of sand bed are ultrasonically tested after hydrotest since approach is not available from the bottom side.(Only for large size vessels)
4. 100% MP/DP test of all pressure part welds including nozzle connections.
5. 100% MP test from inside and outside for all welds including in-situ welds after hydrotest.
6. Simultaneous Hydrostatic test of all vessels in a single mound.

B. LPG Above Ground Storage Plant Installation

LPG above ground storage tanks are horizontal pressure vessels which areintended for the pressurized storage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas(LPG) under ambient temperature. In above ground storagefacility, tanks are mounted on steel or concrete pedestal / support above the ground.

The safety distances as per norms are more than Mounded and Underground storage tank installation. This is because of the smaller vessel-to-vesselspacing and due to the smaller safety distance requirementbetween the mounded storage vessels and items such ascontrol rooms, buildings, roads etc. Above ground storage tanks offer thepossibility of partial or total off-site construction, depends on size of the tanks.

Features:
1. Above ground storage installation cost is very less than mounded and underground.
2. Painting, Visual inspection and preventive maintenance are very easy.
3. Project installation time period is very faster.

LPG storage tanks are equipped with following basic equipments:
• Pressure Gauge
• Temperature Gauge
• Rochester Gauge
• Rotogauge
• Safety Relief Valve
• Ball Valve
• Auto Shut-Off valve
• Excess Flow Check Valve

Bulk LPG Storage Tank Applications:
Bulk LPG storage is used in several types of facilities. They store large amounts of LPG to help a supplier &meet the demand of the market in the area. Bulk facilities are used to distribute LPG to residential and commercial consumers. Tanks are typically designed to load Bobtails / Semitrailers / Tankers of different sizes.

Bulk LPG storage plants are fitted with the appropriate fittings based on the application. Safetechno Services has the flexibility to supply custom manufactured of LPG storage tanks. This can be an important factor in providing the perfect engineered solution for a customer.

Characteristics of LPG:
• LPG exerts a cooling effect as a result of vaporization resulting from releases at low pressure (also called auto refrigeration).
• The density of LPG is almost half of water; therefore, water will settle to the bottom in LPG.
• Very small quantities of liquid will yield large quantities of vapour.
• When vaporized, LPG leaves no residue.
• When LPG evaporates, the auto refrigeration effect condenses the surrounding air, causing ice to form. This is usually a good indication of a leak.
• LPG is odourless; agents such as ethyl mercaptanare added to commercial grades in most countries for better detection.

LPG Production and Operation:
LPG is resulting from two main sources of energy:
Crude Oil refining and Natural Gas processing. When Natural gas wells are drilled into the earth, the gas released is a mixture of several components. For example, a typical natural gas mixture may be methane or “Natural Gas” (90%); the remaining percentage of components (10%) is a mixture of propane (5%) and other gases such as butane and ethane (5%). The gas is shipped in tankers or through a pipeline to secondary production facilities for further treatment and stabilization.

From these facilities it is sent by bulk carrier or pipeline to various industrial plants, gas-filling operations, and power-generation facilities.

LPG is also collected in the crude oil drilling and refining process.
LPG trapped inside the crude oil is called associated gas, which is further divided at primary separation sites or gas-oil separation plants (GOSP); central processing facilities (CPF) for offshore installations; or drilling, production, and quarter’s platforms (DPQ).

At these facilities, the fluids and gases produced from the wells are separated into individual streams based on their characteristics and properties and sent on for further treatment.

At refineries, LPG is collected in the first phase of refinement or crude distillation. The crude oil is then run through a distillation column in which a furnace heats it at high temperatures. During this process, vapours will rise to the top and heavier crude oil components will fall to the bottom. As the vapours rise through the tower, cooling and liquefying occur on “bubble trays,” aided by the introduction of naphtha. Naphtha is straight-run gasoline, and the heavier naphtha is generally unsuitable for blending with premium gasoline. Therefore, it is used as a feedstock in various refining processes such as in a reformer. These liberated gases are recovered to manufacture LPG.

LPG Underground Storage Plant Installation
Under Ground LPG Storage Tanks are horizontal pressure vessels which areintended for the pressurized storage of liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) under ambient temperature. In underground storagefacility, tanks are buried in concrete pit and covered with sand or suitable inert material is providedto cover the bullet, which is kept under ground.

Underground bullets installation is more space efficient than spheres. This is because of the smaller vessel-to-vesselspacing and due to the smaller safety distance requirementbetween the mounded storage vessels and items such ascontrol rooms, buildings, roads etc. Mounded bullets offer thepossibility of partial or total off-site construction. Moundedbullets are installed on sand bed foundations which allow theload to be transferred uniformly to the underlying sand.

C. LPG Cylinder filling Plant Installation
LPG Cylinder filling plant is also known as LPG bottling plant. It can be installed in very small scale like in skid mode / form and also with very huge capacity of bulk storage.
Capacity of the storage and machinery is depends on the Cylinder filling demand.

Cylinder filling Skid can be design and manufacture form 1 scale to 8 scales according to the requirements. Main point of this type of system is to locate all equipments on a skid system and it could be tailor made regarding to the countries’ regulations and work environment.

What are the Equipment of LPG cylinder filling plants?
• LPG Electronic Scale with multiple Filling Heads up to + 50 kg
• LPG Mechanical Scale with multiple Filling Heads up to + 50 kg
• LPG Cylinder Filling Carousel
• Telescopic Conveyor
• Chain Conveyor
• Washing Cabinet
• Drying Machine
• Painting Cabinet for LPG cylinder
• Carousel Entry Mechanism
• Belt Conveyor
• LPG Cylinder Weight Check Scale
• LPG Cylinder Leakage Check Pool
• LPG Cylinder valve Shrinking Machine
• Valve screwing & unscrewing unit
• Gas Transfer Unit
• Hydrostatic Cylinder Test Unit
• Air and LPG Hubs of Filling Carousel

Types of Cylinder filling Plants:
• Skid mounted mini cylinder filling plant
• Containerised cylinder filling plant
• Manual Operated filling plant
• Automatic Filling Carrousels

Specification of LPG Cylinder filling Plant:
The detailed design of filling plants, and the associated cylinder filling equipment, should be undertaken by an appropriate supplier based on the required performance specification. Some suppliers may have ISO 9001 accreditation, or be working towards it, which will provide assurance on quality and business systems operations.

The plant specification should comprehensively cover the throughput, safety and quality requirements over various phases of development.

The specification includes:
• Licensing and other requirements for operating an LPG plant.
• Bulk LPG storage requirements.
• Storage areas for full and empty cylinders.
• Requirements set out in the relevant codes of practice, standards and regulations in the country of use.
• The number of cylinder types/sizes and cylinder valve types involved
• The basic operations undertaken in the filling plant and maintenance areas e.g. cylinder inspection, cylinder filling, leak testing, checks to ensure no overfilling, cylinder evacuation and vapour recovery, valve screwing-unscrewing, cylinder requalification, maintenance and repair of cylinders, grit blasting, painting, etc.
• The number of productive operating hours available over the planning period and peaks.
• The projected throughput per product, per cylinder size/type, per cylinder valve type, over the planning period and peak daily/weekly/monthly demand.
• Operating levels and the degree of automation.
• Capacity of requalification, repair, maintenance and painting facilities.

How to detect leak after LPG cylinder filling?
Leak detection systems should be capable of detecting leaks from all sources on the cylinder of at least 2.5 g/hour.Modern systems can identify leaking cylinders through the use of gas detectors.

After filling it is also recommended that the base of the cylinder be inspected thoroughly.

For large throughput plants, and for plants requalifying cylinders,one system for detecting leaks of this magnitude is a water bathwith a sufficiently long immersion time at the inspection station,e.g. not less than five seconds.

Leak detection using a soap solution, applied manually using abrush or spray to valves and the bung connection, can be used inplants operating with small throughputs.This method does not check the cylinder however and a visualinspection of the cylinder body should be made for signs ofleakage through pin holes in welds etc.

Filling plant manufacturers now offer automated leak detectionunits.
The following checks for leaks must to be made:

On the valve:
✓ Cylinder valve/bung connection
✓ Valve main seal
✓ Valve customer seal (service connection) at cylinder pressure
✓ Pressure relief valve
✓ Spindle gland in hand wheel valves with the valve open but not back seated
✓ Valve body

On the cylinder
✓ Cylinder valve/bung connection
✓ Body of the cylinder for leaks

How to do Cylinder Maintenance and Re-Qualification?
Companies carrying out requalification work on LPG cylinders must have the necessary licences and approvals fromthe relevant authorities to carry out this type of work. That will include handling dangerous gases, disposal of effluents(from the internal washing of cylinders) and the scrapping of cylinders.Where it is required, the facilities for washing, painting, valve screwing and re-qualification of cylinders need to beinstalled.

Cylinders that require that attention should be identified and segregated at the inspection station and directed to theappropriate area. Those operations have to be carried out off the main conveyor in designated areas. Where it is considered necessary, any washing and painting facilities may be incorporated in the main conveyorsystem or in a line parallel to it.

Painting and washing facilities must include the necessary features to prevent damage to the environment, e.g. filtersystems, excess paint disposal, contaminated water treatment. All local Environmental and Health and Safety atWork legislation must be respected.

All filling plants must be equipped with suitable facilities for evacuating defective cylinders and recovering liquids andvapour. In small plants, located in areas where venting of vapour to the atmosphere is judged to be acceptable,cylinders may be discharged via a suitable vent system at high level.
All plants must be capable of gas freeing cylinders, and be capable of testing and confirming those cylinders as gasfree. Usually an “obstructed valve test” or “whisper test” is used, where a de-gassed cylinder is injected with a smallamount of LPG vapour or inert gas through the open cylinder valve and the “whisper” of escaping gas confirms thecylinder is empty.
All cylinders which require additional work must be confirmed gas free prior to that work commencing.
All filling plants should have facilities for changing valves without damaging the cylinder, e.g. suitable clamps to holdcylinders during the valve changing operation, torque wrenches for fitting valves, tightness test facilities for valve andbung joint etc.

Hot work repairs to cylinders, including shot or grit blasting, zinc metal spraying and the use of machinery, e.g. shroudand base ring straightening (although there is equipment available to undertake straightening without heat), whichdoes not comply with the hazard zone safety requirements, must not be carried out in cylinder filling areas or withinother hazardous zones.

Sites where hot work is carried out must be located outside hazardous areas.When performing maintenance, repair and requalification on LPG cylinders, the instructions and manualsfrom the manufacturer must be observed and followed.

D. LOT / VOT Cylinder Manifold Installation

Liquid off Take System (LOT) / Vapour off Take System (VOT)

LPG LOT / VOT cylinder manifold installation system are Multi-cylinder Installation. In which LOT is advance concept of cylinder installation.

In LOT, it withdraws Liquid LPG from the cylinder and LPG is passed through the vaporizer to vaporized the liquid into vapour and the connected to properly designed 1st Stage & 2nd Stage Pressure Reducing Station.

In VOT, the Vaporized LPG is directly drawn from the cylinders with Natural Vaporization Process. This vaporized LPG is passed through the properly designed 1st Stage & 2nd Stage Pressure Reducing Station. This LPG VOT facility is normally recommended for Low utility consumption per hour of LPG.LPG off take per cylinder can go up to 10kg/hr which is comparatively much more than the normal Vapour off take cylinder of 0.6 kg/hr.

LPG LOT System can overcome lots of problems and demerits of bulk LPG Installation & conventional Manifold (VOT) system. This system is widely used in commercial & industrial applications only where high pressure is required & not for domestic purpose.

LOT system offers the efficiency of Bulk installation and easy functionality of cylinder manifold system. LOT systems are compact, safe & highly cost effective as liquid is completely drawn from the cylinder and there is no residual loss.

Benefits
• Zero Maintenance cost
• Constant pressure is maintained at all time
• Optimum utilization of gas
• Less space consumption
• No need for statutory approvals for installation of < 1000kg
• No hot water bathing
• Return on investment < 4 years if daily consumption is > 40 cylinders
• Uninterrupted 24X7 Gas Supply Ensured

 
 

Contact Us

SAFETECHNO SERVICES

K.G. Mansion, 4th Floor, 1223/C, Opp. Kohinoor Hotel, Apte Road, Deccan Gymkhana, Pune - 411004, Maharashtra, India
Mobile: +91-9372922174 / 9423500533 / 7972626776
Email: sales@lpgstorageplantdesignengineering.com

Our sites: www.lpgstorageplantdesignengineering.com, www.lpgandpetroleumlicensing.com, www.lpgcylinderfillingskid.com, www.lpgstorageplantinstallation.com